One of the problems with nutrition is that it is too complex for simple thinking. Unlike drugs, which are designed to inhibit a particular target enzyme, nutrients often work in combinations like a team operating at the genetic level. When you try to apply drug-like thinking (i.e. one compound has to do all the work) to nutrient research, then the results are often underwhelming. Nowhere is this clearer than when we look at how nutrients interact to control body weight.
Weight gain can be best understood as a defect in both metabolism (the conversion of dietary energy into chemical energy) and storage (the stockpiling of excess dietary intake). This involves a four-way conversation between the brain, the gut, the liver and the adipose tissue. The only way these various organs can communicate with each other is via hormones. The gut sends signals to the brain when to stop eating. If the brain receives those signals loud and clear, your desire for food decreases (i.e. satiety). Finally, the food that has been ingested is either converted by the liver into suitable metabolites that can either be used for generating chemical energy (i.e. ATP) or stored (primarily in the fat cells) for future use. When it all works together, it runs smoothly. When it doesn’t work well, you end up gaining more body fat accelerating the pathway toward chronic disease.
One of the key hormones in this complex communication process is adiponectin. Apidonectin is an anti-inflammatory hormone made by the fat cells that is essential for reducing insulin resistance and preventing lipotoxicity (1). In other words, it is at the center of this complex hormonal communication system to help keep body weight in check and slow the development of chronic disease. Great, but how do you increase adiponectin?
First, there is no drug that can do it, but there are nutrients that can. One approach is to consume more omega-3 fatty acids (1). High levels of omega-3 fatty acids activate a genetic transcription factor that causes the increased production of adiponectin. But it takes a lot of high purity omega-3 oil to turn on that gene transcription factor. Now there appears to be another way: Taking polyphenols (2). The polyphenols don’t increase the activity of the genetic transcription factor, but they do facilitate the assembly of adiponectin into its most active form. Of course, if you don’t have enough omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, you can’t produce the necessary adiponectin building blocks to be assembled. When you combine the two (high purity omega-3 oil and polyphenols), then you don’t need to use as much of either one for the desired end result (3).
That’s how nutrition really works. You have to use a team nutrient approach to alter genetic expression. A lot more complicated than giving a single drug, but of course without the inherent side effects.
- Sears B. “Toxic Fat.” Thomas Nelson. Nashville, TN (2008).
- Neschen S, Morino K, Rossbacher JC, Pongratz RL, Cline GW, Sono S, Gillum M, and Shulman GI. “Fish oil regulates adiponectin secretion by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent mechanism in mice.” Diabetes 55: 924-928 (2006).
- Wang Q, Liu M, Liu X, Dong LQ, Glickman RD, Slage TJ, Zhou Z, and Liu F. “Up-regulation of adiponectin by resveratrol.” J Biol Chem 286: 60-66 (2011).
- Shirai N and Suzuki H. “Effects of simultaneous intakes of fish oil and green tea extracts on plasma, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and adiponectin and on liver lipid concentrations in mice fed low- and high-fat diets.” Ann Nutr Metab 52: 241-249 (2008).