# Is Tom Brady Really in the Zone?

I was reading a recent article in Business Insider about the New England Patriots’ quarterback, and his diet as explained by his personal chef: Here is what Tom Brady eats to stay in peak condition at an age most players retire. As far as I can gather from the limited information provided in the article, it certainly appears that Tom Brady’s chef is trying to follow the Zone Diet.

What’s Cooking? And Does the Math Work?
I said “appears” since I am sure that his personal chef is a better cook than he is a nutritionist. For instance, he states the diet followed by Tom Brady is 20% protein and 80% carbohydrate (i.e., whole grains and vegetables). Where’s the fat? The last time I checked, grass-fed beef and salmon contain a lot of fat. Furthermore, how is the percentage of protein and carbohydrate calculated? Is it by weight, volume, or calories? The chef then states that canola oil turns into trans fat when heated. Trans fatty acids are only made with hydrogenation at high temperatures in the presence of a nickel catalyst.

At least the chef gets back on track by stating he only recommends vegetables that are anti-inflammatory. I guess that means he is recommending an anti-inflammatory diet for Tom Brady. But isn’t the Zone Diet an anti-inflammatory diet? According the scientific literature, it certainly is (see references below). So let’s do some simple calculations to determine how close Tom Brady’s diet is to the Zone Diet and then ask if Tom Brady is actually in the Zone.

Let’s start with the percentages of macronutrients. I will assume that 30% of his calories are coming from fat. That leaves 70% of his calories coming from the combination of protein and carbohydrate. Since it is unlikely the chef is discussing calories, I assume he is talking about the volume taken up by each on a plate. Assuming gram for gram the protein and carbohydrate are the same, since vegetables are the primary source of carbohydrates, they will have about 3.5 times the volume as that same amount protein (like grass-fed beef and wild salmon). That would make the caloric balance of carbohydrate to protein being about 1.3 to 1. Do the math: this would mean that 40% of the calories are coming from low-glycemic load carbohydrates, 30% from protein, and 30% from fat. Just like the Zone Diet.

But how many calories is Tom Brady potentially consuming? That will depend on his lean body mass. According to ESPN, Tom Brady is 6’4 and weighs 225 pounds. Assuming he has 15% body fat (typical for an NFL quarterback), then he has a lean body mass of 191 pounds. Based on the playing time of an NFL player during the season, I estimate his protein requirements would be 0.8 grams of protein per pound of lean body mass. All of this comes from my first book, The Zone, which was published when Tom Brady was still in high school. Multiplying 191 pounds of lean body mass times 0.8 equals about 150 grams of protein per day to maintain his muscle mass. To consume this amount of protein (assuming 30% of his total calories are coming from protein) suggests his total caloric intake would be 2,000 calories per day. This calorie consumption is well in the range of the elite athletes I have personally worked with and who have won 25 Gold Medals in the past five Olympics—several who were older than Tom Brady!

From the Zone to the Endzone
So at first glance it certainly appears that Tom Brady’s chef is following the Zone Diet. But the real question is whether Tom Brady is in the Zone? That you can only tell from blood testing. The Zone is not some mystical place, but a real physiological state determined by clinical markers routinely used by Harvard Medical School. The three clinical tests that define the Zone are:

1. The AA/EPA ratio, which is a marker of inflammation.
2. The TG/HDL ratio, which is a marker of insulin resistance.
3. The levels of HbA1c, which is a marker of long-term blood sugar control.

If you really want peak performance and longevity, here is what the numbers should be:

• AA/EPA ratio: 1.5-3
• TG/HDL ratio: <1
• HbA1c: 5.0%

This is not a multiple-choice test. Either all three of the markers are in the correct ranges or you are not in the Zone.

Obviously I don’t have those numbers for Tom Brady, but this is the only way to see if any diet is working to reduce inflammation. Unless you have reached each of these clinical markers you can’t be considered well, no matter how good you look in swimsuit or football uniform. This is why there is no perfect diet for everyone (although I believe the Zone Diet is the easiest way to get to the Zone and stay there), but there is a perfect set of clinical markers that can only be reached by the diet. If those clinical markers aren’t in the Zone, simply continue to adjust your diet until all three clinical markers are in correct ranges.

So here is my prediction: If Tom Brady is actually in the Zone, then it is likely he will be able to play NFL football into his 40s, and he’ll spend more time throwing passes into the endzone.

Original story, Meet the chef who decides what Tom Brady eats—and what he definitely doesn’t, appeared in boston.com on January 4, 2016, and was reported and written by Hilary Sargent.

References:

1. Pereira MA, Swain J, Goldfine AB, Rifai N, and Ludwig DS. “Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss.” JAMA 292: 2482-2490 (2004).
2. Pittas AG, Roberts SB, Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Saltzman E, Golden J, Stark PC, and Greenberg AS.   “The effects of the dietary glycemic load on type 2 diabetes risk factors during weight loss.” Obesity 14: 2200-2209 (2006).
3. Johnston CS, Tjonn SL, Swan PD, White A, Hutchins H, and Sears B. “Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets.” Am J Clin Nutr 83: 1055-1061 (2006).
4. Sears B.  The Zone.  Regan Books. New York, NY (1995).

Dr. Barry Sears is a leading authority on the impact of the diet on hormonal response, genetic expression, and inflammation. A former research scientist at the Boston University School of Medicine and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Sears has dedicated his research efforts over the past 45 years to the study of lipids. He has published 40 scientific articles and holds 14 U.S. patents in the areas of intravenous drug delivery systems and hormonal regulation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. He has also written 14 books, including the New York Times #1 best-seller, The Zone, which have sold more than 6 million copies in the U.S. and have been translated into 22 different languages.

1. Keni P

2,000 calories a day is way too little for someone with 191 lbs of lean body mass. Tom Brady would certainly wither away and die if he consumed only 2,000 calories per day. Katch-Mcardle estimte comes to 2,250 as his Basal Metabolic Rate (if he stayed in bed all day long). He’s consuming 3,200 – 3,500 calories per day to just to maintain his weight.

2. Jan McDowell

Read something today that says 900 mg daily DHA omega-3 will “activate receptors in the digestive tract that fire the sympathetic nervous system and induce white fat fat-storage cells to turn into fat-burning beige cells.”
Do you believe four of your OmegaRx SPORT product produces this activation?

• Dr. Sears

Jan – Can you provide the reference since I am not aware of anything nor could I find anything quickly on Google specifically tied to what you read.

As for your question, 4 of our OmegaRx capsules will provide 800mg. of DHA. There are a few references related to EPA & DHA for Energy and Weight Loss” in this brochure which I just uploaded for you. (http://www.zonediet.com/uploads/role-of-high-dose-fo-bro.pdf). See page 7. However, these references are not related to DHA and fat burning beige cells.

3. Jesse

Zone Diet: Far too complicated to keep in balance and all the blood testing and doctor visits. Simplified method of dividing plate into thirds is over simplification from all i have read. And who can balance the percentages on any meal?

• Dr. Sears

The Zone Diet does require a level of precision in order to balance your carbohydrates, proteins, and fats and get you in the Zone. This can be accomplished by looking at the nutritional facts panel on the foods you eat, referring to the food block guide provided on ZoneDiet.com or in all Dr. Sears’ books, or by utilizing the hand-eye method you mention below. Like yourself, there are still some that find this process to difficult which is why we offer Zone Foods such as our Zone PastaRx to keep you in the Zone without requiring any extra thought. For those that are looking for the simplest option, the Zone Foods and PastaRx would be the option we would recommend to get you in the Zone and keep you in the Zone. Thanks for the comment!

4. kamal

Dr Sears
I was hoping you could comment on the Tom Brady article about the nightshade vegetables. Are they really pro inflammatory? Tomatoes, eggplants, mushrooms and a few others.

thanks
kamal

• Dr. Sears

The nightshade family (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, peppers) produce an alkaloid compound in the nicotine family (solanine) that acts as a defense mechanism to protect the plant from insects. Unfortunately, some individuals are sensitive to this chemical and their immune system mounts an inflammatory response. Over-consumption of nightshades may circumvent the kidney’s control and may lead to calcium deposits of the soft tissues. One subjective way to determine a person’s sensitivity is to eliminate these foods from your diet and observe any improvements.

The best scientific way to determine if one has cellular inflammation is the AA/EPA test. Info at:
drsears.com/ArticlePreview/tabid/399/itemid/68/Default.aspx and zonediagnostics.com

The best way to maintain strong bones is to reduce inflammation (the Zone diet and omega 3’s), adequate lean proteins, optimal levels of vitamin D3 and if you choose to use a calcium supplement be sure it also contains magnesium (http://shop.zonediet.com/product/detail/512.aspx).

5. Steve

Does the Zone Diagnotics finger stick kit test for TG/HDL and HbA1c as well? Or only AA/EPA? It wasn’t clear to me from the site.

• Dr. Sears

Jim – The carotid artery is the major artery from the heart to the brain by branching into two branches on either side of the neck. If either of these arteries become blocked, then the likelihood of a ischemia stroke is greatly enhanced. The same mechanism occurs in the arteries that feed the heart. The blockage in both cases is caused by increased inflammation. Therefore the best way to the likelihood of a stroke (i.e. brain attack) or a heart attack is to reduce inflammation in those arteries. Following an anti-inflammatory diet like the Zone Diet is your best dietary approach. This can be supplemented by high-dose omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols to further reduce inflammation by other mechanisms as described in detail in my newest book, The Mediterranean Zone.

6. Geoff Lee

How can I get the blood tests for the three markers if my PCP doesn’t order them?